of the things I am asked frequently from people looking at wedding or
occasion cakes in books or magazines, at my pictures or from watching
a cake being built on television or on video are:
do I get the tiers so straight?
One of my tiers seemed larger. Why?
A raspberry poked through the side!
There was a crack [horizontal or vertical] on the side of mine. How
do I prevent this?
Syrup was leaking out the bottom. Does this happen to you? [Yes, it
My cake tiers always seem to be of uneven size when I really want
[Dark Chocolate/Berry] Filling was showing through the side of my
white wedding cake.
My cake seemed to shift and the top half "slid" to the left.
Why did it do that?
all the cakes I've done, just about every disaster has occurred and
everything that could have happened has happened. Luckily, I've learned
greatly because of them, and without them could not have been able to
teach others as effectively and answer all the why's and what if's.
While the culinary school I graduated from had a great bakery department
back in 1992, Western Culinary Institute was just seemingly emerging
from Horst Mager Culinary Institute and had a very strong cooking backbone,
and had no specialty cake decorating classes then. Working at the Ritz-Carlton
Laguna Niguel gave me opportunities to learn all about pastry art and
design once I decided that Pastry was my field of choice.
opportunity came up to learn about pastry design when I was a very young scrub, and I had the fortunate chance to work
under and with a very talented Pastry Chef who was also an established
artist and a former culinary instructor. The chef didn't mind me coming in
early or staying late, arriving on my own time to do all my experiments, and who
encouraged me at the very start to take notes, notes, notes and read,
read, read. I realized quickly that working at a large hotel, you are NEVER shorted on
work to do and the clientele ALWAYS has a variation to whatever is in
hotel's cake book (or they bring in a picture to replicate), so the repetitions and variations
are virtually endless.
there are pastry artists who take the design of the cakes to the next
level, have been schooled in the art of cake deco and sugar paste or
who literally can create a gum paste orchid perfectly with their eyes
closed, for everyone it really all starts with a plain cake, a filling,
and a frosting or buttercream.
may have a better way to build your cakes, but through trial and error
here are my tips and guidelines that help prevent many of the questions
and problems at the beginning of this article.
The guidelines below
also will help with the basic goals I've come up with for any finished
of a Finished Cake
Sides straight and even
2. Tiers evenly spaced, not just in diameter in proportion to the
others, but even heights and pillar spacing
3. No cake layers/fillings, or spreads/berries, or internal garnishes,
or cracks showing up or through the final coating
are four basics of building a cake: the cake itself, fillings, syrups
and the internal garnishes, tier assembly, and first and final coats.
One: The Cake
a cake that is firm, not 'hole-y' or too airy or open celled. A cake
that is too soft, spongy or open celled will not be up to the task
of holding the layer's filling.
layers must be cut evenly. This is not just meaning a perfect cut
with no dips, divots or 'flaps' from the knife cuts on the cake, but
having each slice from the cake being even with each other (for example
if you cut an inch thick layer for the first cut, make each subsequent
layer an inch; if it's 1/4 of an inch, make sure each other sliced
layer is 1/4 of an inch, too). When slices are cut from the finished
and decorated cake, even layers will show.
top and bottom of the cakes should be trimmed off. The top may be
bowed inward or outward, depending on the baking, and the bottom may
hold a shell or two from the eggs. This also makes sure each cake
slice is uniform in color for each layer; no tell-tale brown for the
top or bottom.
sure there is an even spacing of the cake layer diameters; otherwise
when assembled, there will be a noticeable difference in diameters
between the tiers, which especially stands out when stacked (unless
that is your whole intention). For example:
x 10 x 6 = each is spaced 4" in diameter from each other
x 9 x 6 = each is spaced 3"
x 10 x 8 x 6 = each is spaced 2"
Two: Fillings, Syrups and Internal Garnishes or Spreads
not over-moisten. While moistness is key to good compliments and
great eating, there is such a thing as over doing it. If too much
syrup is added, it can lead to leaking on the bottom, and can
make the cake layers unstable.
can add not only moisture to a cake but when flavored can compliment
the filling or cake itself.
one that can set up if making fresh, and choose one that isn't
liquid or runny when assembling or when finished.
one that is appropriate: if the cake will be sitting out for extended
periods for decorating or serving, a light whipped cream and strawberry
filling will not hold up well, for example.
Garnishes and Spreads:
using berries, make sure they are not so over-ripe that they seem
to 'smoosh' by just looking at them. (For example, raspberries
cut fruit or berries are desired, do not use for a cake that will
sit out for extended periods for decorations to be completed or
they may weep, bleed or the juices may run.
chopped bananas are being used and you have tossed them in an
acidic liquid to help prevent browning (like lemon or pineapple
juice), be sure they are carefully drained before putting with
a spread (like preserves, jams, ganache, curds, etc.) will be
used before the filling is placed or piped on the layers, make
sure it is thin. You don't need much, and they are usually soft
and don't readily set up on their own (except a traditional ganache).
If using a very thick layer of a plain curd for example, there
is a possibility a tier can 'shift' after setting up, where a
layer literally slides or shifts since the filling and the cake
will not adhere to it. A spread is used mostly for added flavor
or color. An example of flavor would be dark chocolate ganache
used with a mocha buttercream and an example of color would be
raspberry jam used with a white chocolate mousse.
Three: Assembly of the Tiers
sure all cut layers are even, and evenly grained. If one cut layer
for one of your tiers seems to be very porous, has a crack or a hole
in it, it usually can be compensated for, but be wary. A bottom tier
or middle tier with a heavily porous cake will not hold up to syrups
or soft fillings well and will sometimes disintegrate while being
cut when left on the cake table for a period of time.
- I always
pipe my buttercream around my layers with a round tip, making it as
tall as my filling. For large cakes, using large plain tip will suffice.
This helps to keep the filling in place (not seep through layers),
makes for an easy first coat and keeps the assembly straight for the
sure when you add the filling you don't overfill—when the filling
is thicker in the center than on the sides—because once you
put your second layer (or third or fourth depending on how many layers
for your finished cake tier) and press down to make even there is
no place for it to go except out the sides.
you use a jam or curd for a spread before you add your filling, make
sure it is thin and even. This is so when you pipe your buttercream
around the edge, the filling doesn't shift or slide when crumb coating
(or that first coating of buttercream making it all smooth and ready
for the final coating).
all the cake layers have been cut evenly (remember, not just a perfect
knife cut but each cut layer is even in height) and fillings have
been put on with the same thickness, the tiers when assembled will
theoretically be even as well, which is an ultimate goal for the finished
product of multi-tiered cakes.
Four: First Coat and Final Coat
you have piped the buttercream around the edges, the filling is encased
and the sides will be easily straightened as they're being built.
your mousse is not set up yet and you still desire to use it for assembly
it will be very loose when put between the layers. When this happens,
instead of putting on a cake wheel and twirling to do the first coat,
use an offset or straight spatula (whichever you are more comfortable
using) and finish the crumb coat on the work bench: make the sides
even and smooth with the buttercream and smooth out the tops. Then
carefully lift and place on flat, even surface in the cooler until
chilled and set.
may seem like a no-brainer but always put your tiers which are either
finished or with their first coats ready for finishing on a flat,
even surface. I've seen cakes with beautiful, even first and final
coats in walk-ins—buttercream chilled and fully set, ready for
decoration—only to be removed from a bumpy, bowed or uneven
sheet pan and placed on a cake board or silver stand (and no surprise)
it cracks. This is because the soft buttercream around the cake tiers
have conformed and set up to the curvature of the uneven surface.
Once it is placed on a flat surface, the cake levels out and cracks
as it settles.
want to make your first coat as even and smooth as possible. If your
tiers have shifted as they are being built, simply go around with
your spatula and straighten while the buttercream is still softened
(if the cakes are large or if the filling is soft, you may need to
get your hands 'dirty' and manually shift to straighten the sides).
If any curd or jam bleeds now when the first coat is being put on,
remove any large, oozing pockets and cover with buttercream. If a
berry pokes through the piping of buttercream, push it back in now
before it hardens in place since it will undoubtedly show through
the final coat. The key to a first coat is to ready the tiers for
the final coat and decoration. You want the entire cake covered in
buttercream (thin coat, just making it smooth and removing crumbs
and imperfections) so that when it chills it firms up resulting in
a durable surface for the finishing.
sure your first coat is adequate, but not overly thick. There will
be a final coat going on to finish up the cake, so it's not necessary
to have, say, two inches of buttercream on the outside.
you are using a ganache, a butter-based or shortening icing or gelatin-and-whipped-cream
in place of the buttercream, the same rules apply:
- Use a plain tip for the piping of icing on the outside of the
layers to hold in the filling.
a recipe for both the icing and filling that will firm up or set
up upon cooling.
sure your first coating is straight and even.
are the general guidelines for building any cake—whether it's
for a wedding, a birthday or other occasion—that I have implemented
through trial and error and experience. You may find other ways to accomplish
the goals or have a quicker way to build your cakes. In any case, the
object is to present a cake that tastes good and is structurally sound.
All the decorating in the world will not help a cake that is cracked
or split, is leaning to one side or another, hasn't been leveled out
properly or given a good crumb coat, or having mult-tiers that are very
varied in heights - and not intentionally done. Taking the time to do the rudimentaries properly
will make time spent decorating time worth spent.